What We’re Reading: May and June

Image:  Workers in a garment factory in Hawassa, southern Ethiopia. Eyerusalem Jiregna/AFP via Getty Images

Each month, we’ll tell you what we’ve been reading at The Circle to get you feeling engaged, informed, and inspired by the global rights movement.  You might find an interview, a long read, a novel, or just a short news update – so, here is our round up for May & June! 

Over the past couple of weeks we have seen hundreds of anti-racism resources being shared on social media. For the May & June reading list we are sharing with you some of the articles that we have been reading and further resources below which have been recommended by on social media. 

‘Racism is at the heart of fast fashion – it’s time for change’ – Kalkidan Legesse, The Guardian

Kalkidan Legesse, a social entrepreneur and black woman, is the owner of Sancho’s, a black woman owned ethical and sustainable clothing store in Exeter. Legesse has written an incredibly important article for the Guardian, talking about the deep-rooted racism within the fashion industry. Legesse reminds us that the ‘economic exploitation that fast fashion is reliant upon is a legacy of colonialism’ and that ‘Of the 74 million textile workers worldwide, 80% are women of colour.’ If we want to see change in this industry, we need to be holding brands accountable and avidly supporting equal representation. 

‘Black Trans Lives Matter’: We can’t let the government bury an assault on trans rights – Leah Cowan, Gal-dem 

 Amid protests and a racist pandemic, politicians are trying to quietly backslide on trans rights by scrapping proposed amendments to the Gender Recognition Act. 

‘Women and Black Lives Matter’ – Marcia Chatelain, Dissent Magazine

This was an interview with Marcia Chatelain, assistant professor of history at Georgetown University, published in Summer 2015Chatelain and interviewer Kaavya Asoka discuss the role of black women in the Black Lives Matter movement and the importance of recognizing that gender and sexuality are crucial and central to discussions about police brutality. Chatelain argues, “I think any conversation about police brutality must include black women. Even if women are not the majority of the victims of homicide, the way they are profiled and targeted by police is incredibly gendered.” 

‘A Letter From Aurelia: Black Lives Matter’ – Kya Buller, Aurelia Magazine

Aurelia Magazine was founded by Kya Buller in 2018 and publishes a variety of content by women and non-binary people. You will find beautiful pieces on identity, literature, culture and so much more. Aurelia is dedicated to publishing work by black women/non-binary writers and they are doing incredible work to support diversity and representation in the publishing industry. We need more publications like Aurelia Magazine both online and in print. Support Black owned businesses. Listen to Black voices. Sign petitions. Donate to causes. Say their names. Don’t ever stop saying their names.’ 

Americanah – Chimamanda Ngozi Adiche

This book is certainly one that should be on A-level and university reading lists. The fictional narrative switches between the two main protagonists, Ifemelu and Obinze who live in Nigeria. Ifemelu then moves to America whilst Obinze moves to London and they are both wrestling with what it means to be black in these countries. Americanah is an essential book to read and be aware of in order to educate oneself about racism and immigration. 

Girl, Woman, Other – Bernadine Evaristo

Girl, Woman, Other follows the lives and struggles of twelve very different characters. Mostly women, black and British, they tell the stories of their families, friends and lovers, across the country and through the years. 

Joyfully polyphonic and vibrantly contemporary, this is a gloriously new kind of history, a novel of our times: celebratory, ever-dynamic and utterly irresistible.  

Now is the Time: Impactful Change in the Fashion Industry – The Circle

Non-essential retail shops in England re-opened today and garment retailers including Primark, TK Maxx and Nike were met with long queues of eager shoppers. Although for many this will signal the beginning of the end in terms of the UK’s nearly three-month lockdown, for the workers who produce our clothing, the impacts of the Covid-19 pandemic will be long lasting. 

More useful resources and campaigns

Books 

  • Your Silence Will Not Protect You, Audre Lorde 
  • Why I’m No Longer Talking To White People About Race, Reni Eddo-Lodge 
  • Citizen: An American Lyric, Claudia Rankin 
  • Me and White Supremacy, Layla F Saad

 


Garment Workers’ Stories

Image: National Garment Workers Federation

As part of the Women and Girls Solidarity Fund, we’ve made emergency grants to partners in Bangladesh to provide essential supplies including food, protective masks and soap to garment workers who have been left destitute.

Garment workers have been left without work as factories have closed due to dwindling orders. Many of these workers are migrant women. With historically low wages, it is impossible to save and workers are now unable to pay for housing or food. We heard a number of stories from workers who have been impacted by the Covid-19 crisis:

“I am Suraiya and I am working as helper for last 4 months in Interlink Apparels Ltd. I have a daughter of 5 years old and a son of 10 years old. 10 years ago, I had early marriage at the age of 16. I did not work in the garment factory before but it was very difficult for us to run the family with the sole income of my husband. Due to the struggle of severe poverty I came to Dhaka city four months back and joined in a garment factory. My husband used to run a tea stall in Gazipur area. We have to pay 4000 bdt as house rent. It is still a struggle to run a family of four members after paying half of the wage for house rent.

Due to the lockdown, my husband cannot run his tea stall anymore and I have been laid off by my factory. I do not know whether I will get my full wage or not. We do not have any income now but we have to pay our house rent, we have to feed our children. The situation is the worst now. After paying the house rent we will not have any money to have our food even. We do not know what will happen to us.” – Suraiya, 26

“My factory is a sweater factory where I work in knitting section. In November, 2019 the factory was declared closed informing over the phone without paying the due wage. When we asked the wage for that period the management informed that, if you want to continue the work without wage come into the office, otherwise we need not to come.

The factory re-opened on February 8, 2020. We got the wage of February at the beginning of March then again the factory has closed. The factory declared closure and we are worried about the wages as we were not paid for March. The Eid is ahead and we are worried about our Eid bonus as well.

There are four members in our family and we are going through terrible suffering due to poverty. We are surviving somehow by having only one time meal a day and the condition is same among other co-workers as well. We do not have any money in our hand now and the shops are not allowing further buying without paying the prior dues. The landlord is also asking for the rent and asking to leave the house if unable to pay the rent. Where we will go and what we will eat now? When we do not have any food, maintaining social distance and thinking about hygiene issues seems like a luxury to us. We need support to live.” – Md Shahin Alam

Image: National Garment Workers Federation

“I work in a garment factory. Our factory has laid us off and we have not received the due wages. We are worried about not getting paid, but if we do that the amount will not be in full. They will deduct our wage. According to the labor law I have heard that, we can get the half of the wage for the laid off period but that will be very small in amount. How we will manage our house rent and food with this amount? I went to the local government official for the government’s relief support but the officer said as the government is supporting the RMG sector that I am not eligible for this support.” – Mos. Laboni Akter Salma

These are just a few stories of the millions of garment workers impacted by the Covid-19 crisis. We need to hold brands and retailers accountable and ensure that garment workers are provided for in this time of crisis.

We are still fundraising to support as many women and girls as possible with our emergency appeal. You can donate by clicking here. 


The Circle’s Music Auction

 

Annie Lennox, Sting, Taylor Swift, Emeli Sandé, Jessie J, Paloma Faith, Celeste and more launch The Circle Music Auction. All proceeds to go to The Circle’s global Covid-19 Emergency Appeal.

Singer-Songwriter, Activist and Founder of The Circle, Annie Lennox, has invited fellow musicians to contribute to The Circle Music Auction to help raise funds for women and girls across the globe who have been disproportionately impacted by the Covid-19 crisis.

Enter Now!

 

The Circle Music Auction, which is live on the platform Charity Stars, invites partakers to bid on auction items or buy tickets for a sweepstake competition (starting price $10). The auction will close Friday 10th July, and the sweepstake will end Friday 31st July.

Annie Lennox, Sting, Emeli Sandé, Jessie J, Yola, Paloma Faith, Jessie Ware, Hozier, Anoushka Shankar, Jack Savoretti, Skin (Skunk Anansie), Simon Neil (Biffy Clyro) and Frank Turner have kindly donated two personalised performances for the auction (one for the winner of the highest bid, and one for the winner of the sweepstake competition). Winners will receive an exclusive, pre-recorded video featuring a live performance of one or two songs chosen from the winners list alongside a personalised message.

In addition to the exclusive personalised performances, The Circle Music Auction will also feature lots kindly donated by musicians. These include an Alberta Ferreti silk dress worn by Annie Lennox for performances, a signed guitar from Taylor Swift, a signed outfit worn by Madison Beer for her ‘Good in Goodbye’ video shoot, and a virtual afternoon tea and two song performances by BRITs Rising Star Award Winner, Celeste.

The crisis for thousands of women living in poverty is acute.  Many no longer have any income, are suffering domestic violence and have nowhere to turn.  I am delighted that such incredible musicians are stepping up to join me and offer support.” – Founder of The Circle, Annie Lennox

‘Annie Lennox is a wonderful friend and I am pleased to support her & The Circle in their important fight for vulnerable women and girls around the world devastated by the impact of COVID.’  – Sting

‘These are painful times across the world, and I show my continued solidarity to fighting injustices. In support of The Circle’s music auction, which is supporting vulnerable marginalised women and girls disproportionately affected by the COVID pandemic, I am pleased to offer my incredible fans such a personal prize to raise much needed funds. Whatever the reason you are bidding, your support will provide much needed emergency support in these difficult times.’ – Emeli Sandé

All funds raised by The Circle Music Auction will go to The Circle’s The Women and Girls Solidarity Fund to support immediate needs such as food and hygiene packages, access to safe refuges and legal aid packages. The emergency appeal is supporting The Circle’s current and expanding portfolio of project partners which particularly focus on women and girls in Asia and Africa who are affected by rising domestic violence and workers in the garment industry faced with total loss of income. The NGO has already deployed grants to scale up helplines and public awareness campaigns on domestic abuse.

Examples of how the funds will provide support:

  • £15 could provide emergency parcels including food, hygiene kits, and menstrual products for three women in Uganda.
  • £20 could provide a garment worker and her family in Bangladesh who have been left destitute with essential supplies of food, soap, and protective equipment including masks and hand sanitiser.
  • £40 could provide one week of safe refuge for a survivor of violence at the Nonceba Centre in South Africa.

‘The COVID pandemic has turned the world upside down and recent events have rightly seen an outpouring of support for marginalised communities. The Circle stands in solidarity. It has long been there for the world’s most vulnerable women and girls and we continue to provide support at a time of great urgency with the launch of The Circle Music Auction.’ – Raakhi Shah, CEO of The Circle

Enter Now!


Domestic Violence: The Second Pandemic

Image: UNICEF/Nesbitt

Wan Fei, the founder of an anti-domestic violence NGO in China reported a huge increase in the country’s domestic violence cases in February. Jingzhou, a province in Hubei, received 3 times more reports in February 2020 than in the previous year. As cases of Covid-19 began to climb around the world, so did cases of domestic violence.

As the world’s attention was focused on the pandemic, women’s rights activists and service providers warned us that domestic violence victims would be overlooked, survivor services would be de-prioritised and the fear and tension during the crisis would result in a sharp increase in cases. As we saw the numbers of domestic violence cases rapidly increase in China where the pandemic started, we could assume that this pattern would follow in other countries. This assumption was proven to be true, as there has been an increase in domestic violence cases as lockdowns started all over the world.

Domestic abuse was a global human right issue even in pre-pandemic times. According to statistics, 1 in 3 women face physical or sexual violence, mostly perpetuated by an intimate partner. While this makes violence against women the most widespread human rights abuses, it is also the least reported. Domestic abuse is often still viewed as a ‘normal’ act due to women’s subordinate position in society and families. Other reasons may include fear, lack of resources and support, or illegal status of refugees. The last is because women who do not have a right to stay permit often do not dare to go to the police in fear of being deported. This is why it is important to note that the domestic abuse commissioner for England and Wales, Nicole Jacobs, encouraged women with illegal status not to fear deportation but to report abuses.

The women who experience violence are vulnerable to sexual, reproductive and mental health risks. For example, victims are twice as likely to suffer from depression and 1.5 times more likely to get STIs. These risks are increased in times of conflict, let it be economic crisis, civil war, or a disease outbreak. It is therefore safe to assume that this will also be the case for millions of women across the globe during the COVID-19 pandemic. While for some of us staying home means safety, for many women and children home means the opposite. The quarantine poses a special situation as women are trapped inside with the abusers, who are more easily triggered by things due to being in such a stressful situation. It is important to note however, that the pandemic does not cause domestic abuse, but creates ‘conductive contexts’.

We have seen several cases of the increase of domestic violence cases globally. For example in the USA, a domestic violence hotline in Portland, Oregon doubled in only one week in March. The American national domestic violence hotline reported a dozens of callers whose abusers are using the coronavirus outbreak to control and isolate them. As everyone is focused on the public health crisis, hotlines fear that violence happening in the private sphere will be overlooked. Some states even seized this opportunity to make it more difficult to access abortion as ‘non-essential’ healthcare. Even though, logically, if domestic violence cases are going up so will unwanted pregnancies.

Numbers of cases of domestic abuse is also going up in Lebanon. Calls to the domestic violence hotline increased by 110% in March 2020. The NGO Abaad started a movement dubbed #LockDownNotLockUp, where people stood outside their balconies hanging sheets with the number of the domestic abuse hotline.

Image: PATRICK BAZ/Abaad/AFP via Getty Images.

Activists in Italy reported a drop in calls to the helpline centre only to receive a record amount of text messages and emails. As victims are forced to be in the same rooms as their abusers they often cannot voice their problems out loud and this is the only way they can let others know what is happening. It is also important to remember that if women are afraid to ring helplines, but numbers of reports are still increasing globally, how many more cases are happening that goes unreported.

In the UK calls to the national abuse hotline went up by 65% in March. Another hotline, Respect, had a 26.86% increase in calls but a 125% increase in website recordings in the week starting 30 March. This shows how women in Italy are not alone, women in the UK are often unable to make phone calls and try for a silent solution as well. Additionally, The  Men’s Advice Line, who care for male victims of domestic abuse, also had an increase in calls of 16.6% and an increase of website recordings 42%.

Avon and Somerset police reported a 20.9% increase in domestic abuse incidents in two weeks, from 718 to 868. The founder of Counting Dead Women, Karen Ingala Smith, recorded at least 16 women who were killed by men in the UK between 23 March and 12 April. This is at least twice as much as the average in the last 10 years. The domestic abuse commissioner for England and Wales, Nicole Jacobs, said police are ready to deal with a spike in domestic abuse calls. The leader of the Women’s Equality party called for special police powers to evict perpetrators from homes under the lockdown, and for authorities to waive court fees for the protection orders.

In early May the government pledged £76 million new funding for domestic and sexual violence support, vulnerable children & modern slavery, but the EVAW Coalition is calling for more detail on how the money will be distributed. They are also asking the government to follow the BAME demand for ethnicity monitoring of all COVID- 19 cases, as BAME communities are disproportionately affected and therefore BAME communities and organisations deserve ring fenced funding to address this issue. As lockdown has continued, there has been a shift in awareness regarding the risk of domestic violence. Supermarkets, one of the only few places that remained open during lockdown, have run initiatives including Tesco included the national hotline on their receipts and Morrison’s opened safe places in their pharmacies where those concerned can get advice from trained consultants.

Image: AP Photo/Jenny Kane

Although we’re nearing the end of the UK’s nearly three-month lockdown, this wave of domestic violence the effects on the survivors will be long-lasting. Now, more than ever, we need to ensure that support services are available to them. The Circle has supported Glasgow and Clyde Rape Crisis with its new text helpline, in order to reach vulnerable women and girls who may not be able to speak on the phone. We have also made grants to Irise Uganda, to support them with their emergency relief and domestic violence prevention work.

Some general and specific advice for people living in the UK

Hotlines

  • England: The National Domestic Abuse Helpline is 0808 2000 247, available 24 hours a day 7 days a week. You can visit their website for more information.
  • England: The Respect phone line 0808 8024040 is open Monday to Friday 9am to 5pm. You can visit their website for more information.
  • Scotland: The Domestic Abuse and Forced Marriage Helpline is 0800 0271234 24, available 24 hours a day, 7 days a week. Visit their website here.
  • Northern Ireland: The 24-Hour Domestic and Sexual Abuse Helpline is 0808 8021414, available 24 hours a day, 7 days a week. More information here.
  • Wales: The Live Fear Free Helpline is 08088010800, available 24 hours a day, 7 days a week. They also have a website.
  • If you are a man experiencing domestic abuse call 0808 8010327 or visit their advice line.

Police

  • You can make silent 999 calls to the police by waiting for the call handler to pick up making some kind of a cough or any sound at all and pressing 5,5.

Bright Sky

  • The app can be disguised for people worried about partners checking their phones, provided support and information for victims.

Here are some precautions you can take to look out for each other:

  • If you are a postal worker, delivery driver, food delivery company or a carer who still visits houses, keep an eye out for any signs of abuse and to report any concerns to the police.
  • Neighbours should pay extra attention in hearing shouts, cries, or any noise that could be associated with violence. In case you suspect something bad is happening in a neighbouring house/flat please call the police.

Click here to donate to The Circle’s Women and Girls Solidarity Fund!

This article was written by Csenge. Csenge is a university student, a volunteer, and a feminist. She is originally from Hungary, but has started my university in London, which she loves.


Now is the Time: Impactful Change in the Fashion Industry

Image: Better Work, ILO/IFC

Non-essential retail shops in England re-opened today and garment retailers including Primark, TK Maxx and Nike were met with long queues of eager shoppers. Although for many this will signal the beginning of the end in terms of the UK’s nearly three-month lockdown, for the workers who produce our clothing, the impacts of the Covid-19 pandemic will be long lasting.

We have seen many brands and retailers abandon their suppliers in time of need, as clothing orders dwindled and factories in large garment producing countries such as Bangladesh and Cambodia, were forced to close. Although some brands have made commitments to pay workers for orders already fulfilled, many have shown a complete disregard for the rights and livelihoods of the most vulnerable in their supply chain and some point blank refused to pay, including Kohl’s who used force majeure clauses in contracts to avoid paying for clothing already made and ready to ship. We cannot forget their actions and fall back into our old consumer driven behaviours. Now is the time for change.

Now more than ever, we are examining the inequalities that persist throughout our society and nowhere is that more apparent than in the garment industry. Of the some 74 million textile workers worldwide an estimated 80% are women, many of whom are women of colour, single and migrants. In Pakistan, it has been predicted that 1 million workers will lose their jobs as a result of the crisis and in Bangladesh some 2.27 million workers have been affected by cancelled orders. Many of these workers are young women who are often the family’s primary breadwinner. For them, and for all those employed in the fast fashion industry, the devastating effects of the Covid-19 pandemic must not be forgotten.

Now more than ever is the time to introduce legal mechanisms that will protect these workers from weak contractual agreements that have been exposed over the last few months, poverty wages that do not allow them to save for periods of uncertainty, and unsafe working conditions that put their lives at risk.

The Circle has provided grants to partners in Bangladesh to provide immediate emergency relief to garment workers and their families who have been left destitute, but core to our work is the goal of building robust legal frameworks to ensure that these women can work with the dignity and rights that they are entitled to. With The Lawyers Circle, we are advocating for the fundamental right of a living wage to be introduced for garment workers by bringing about legislation that will ensure that a living wage is paid by fashion brands to the millions of women and men in their global supply chains. This legislation is vital to prevent further poverty as global economies move into recession.

What can you do?


New Report an Important Addition to the Due Diligence Debate

Image: Stefan Lechner

Today sees the release of the report, “Making Human Rights Due Diligence Frameworks Work for Small Farmers and Workers” – commissioned by the Fair Trade Advocacy Office (FTAO) with Brot für die Welt, and written by the University of Greenwich’s Natural Resources Institute, based in part on research shared by The Circle.

The report explores how human rights due diligence (HRDD), can have a positive impact on small farmers and workers in the agriculture and textile sector and on how fair purchasing practices, living wages and living incomes can be addressed by HRDD frameworks and instruments. It concludes with recommendations for future legislative frameworks.

Human rights due diligence is defined by the UN Guiding Principles as, “An ongoing risk management process… in order to identify, prevent, mitigate and account for how [a company] addresses its adverse human rights impacts.” This is currently, predominantly, a voluntary process that businesses undertake and as such there is little legal recourse for abuses found in global supply chains. This has led some critics to view current processes as little more than a bureaucratic tick-boxing exercise.

However, this trend seems to be changing, with some countries introducing laws that include legal sanctions (such as France’s Corporate Duty of Vigilance Law) and a commitment by Justice Didier Reynders at the EU Commission to introduce mandatory – cross-sectorial – due diligence laws for businesses in 2021.

This report is an important contribution to future debates on HRDD – the issue of implementation and on the ground impact on the lives of workers needs to be built in to any new legislation from the very beginning in order to make it effective.

In particular we welcome the report’s emphasis on the explicit inclusion of living wages and living incomes within due diligence frameworks as, “…fundamental to respecting internationally recognised human rights – either as rights themselves or as preconditions for other priority rights…”

As noted in the report, “… existing laws and regulations are not sufficient to ensure living wages, living incomes or fair trading practices in international supply chains… HRDD frameworks do not, at present, guarantee that insufficient wages or incomes will be covered and adequately addressed by such frameworks. […] HRDD frameworks need to make explicit reference to trading practices and systemic issues… in particular… living wages and living incomes throughout the supply chain.” (p.33)

International wage setting is often avoided in policy discussions, as it is seen as too complex an area to legislate. However, we strongly agree with the report that living wages are a right in themselves and a precondition for other priority rights – and therefore must be explicitly included in any future mandatory due diligence legislation.

Read the FTAO full report here: Making Human Rights Due Diligence Frameworks Work for Small Farmers and Workers

 


Force Majeure and Covid-19: A Guide for Suppliers in the Garment Industry

Image: Getty Images

Due to the global Covid-19 pandemic, many Western retailers have cancelled orders, demanded discounts and in some cases refused to pay for orders already completed. These cancellations have had a devastating effect on garment workers in global supply chains – effectively abandoning some of the world’s most vulnerable workers.

Brands have justified their actions by claiming that Covid-19 constitutes an event of force majeure. But what is force majeure? Does it apply in this case? And what legal rights does a supplier have if a brand cancels or refuses to pay on this basis?

Working in partnership with Traidcraft Exchange, The Circle is proud to publish a briefing for suppliers on force majeure.

The briefing provides background to the meaning and application of force majeure and highlights steps suppliers can take in their negotiations with brands and retailers when force majeure is used to renege on a contract or purchasing order.

Read the full briefing here: Force Majeure and Covid-19: A Guide for Suppliers in the Garment Industry

 
Early indications (from April) estimated a total of £20 billion of orders worldwide had been cancelled, although this figure may now be lower as some brands have backtracked due to public pressure. Industry insiders estimate 60 million garment workers will struggle to weather the crisis as many go without pay and face being fired.

“As far as buyers are concerned, there has never been any real room for negotiations,” according to one major garment supplier in India. And yet, as noted by the briefing:

“…a brand cannot rely on force majeure to get out of a contract that is merely difficult or less profitable. Force majeure is not a cure for a contract that is no longer practical or economically viable for a brand or retailer.”

 
Brands must take responsibility – to stand by their contracts, their suppliers, and the global multitude of workers who have helped generate their profits over these last decades.

 

Image: Fabeha Monir for The New York Times